Hedging is a kind of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Hedging is a kind of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Using language with a suitable quantity of caution can protect your claims from being easily dismissed. It also helps to indicate the known degree of certainty we have in terms of the evidence or support.

Compare the next two short texts, (A) and (B). You will observe that even though the two texts are, in essence, saying the thing that is same (B) has a substantial level of extra language around the claim. A large quantity of this language is performing the purpose of ‘hedging’.

Compare the next two texts that are short (A) and (B). How many differences would you see within the text that is second? What’s the function/effect/purpose of each difference?

You will probably notice that (B) is much more ‘academic’, however it is important to understand why.

(A) Extensive reading helps students to boost their vocabulary.

(B) Research conducted by Yen (2005) seems to indicate that, for a substantial proportion of students, extensive reading may play a role in a noticable difference in their active vocabulary. Yen’s (2005) study learners that are involved need a essay written 15-16 when you look at the UK, even though it can be applicable to many other groups. However, the study involved an opt-in sample, which means the sample students may have been more ‘keen’, or more involved in reading already. It could be helpful to see whether the findings differ in a wider sample.

(please be aware that Yen (2005) is a reference that is fictional only as an example).

The table below provides some situations of language to utilize when knowledge that is making.

Look for types of hedging language in your own reading, to add for this table.

Phrases for Hedging

Language Function with Example Phrases

1) Quantifiers

a fraction
a minority/majority of
a proportion of
to a point

2) Appearance

appears to
has the appearance of
is similar to
shares characteristics with
appears to stay in line with

3) Possibility

has the possibility of
has the potential to
is able to

4) Frequency

tends to
has a tendency to

5) Comparatively

in a simpler way than .
more simply than …
When compared to …

Into the context of …
…in certain situations…
Within some households…

7) Ev >Based on …
As indicated by …
According to …

8) Description in language

can be described as
could be thought to be
is sometimes labelled
can be equated to
the term is normally used to mean
the term is often used to mention to
this may indicate that …
this may claim that …

Language categories compiled and devised by Jane Blackwell

IOE Centre that is writing Online

Self-access resources from the Academic Writing Centre in the UCL Institute of Education.

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Academic Writing Centre, UCL Institute of Education

Essays often sound tough, but they are the easiest method to write a lengthy answer.
In this lesson, we will look at how to write one.


Start your answer, and list what you will be writing about

Come up with the ideas that may answer your question


Re-write exacltly what the ideas are and say why you’ve got answered them

Arguments, Keywords and Definitions

That we will use to describe what you do for essay writing structure before we start going through how an essay works, we need to go through three terms.
Argument = most of the main points you are likely to talk about in your essay.
Keywords = words which are important parts of the question
Definition = A one-sentence summary of the essay that is whole which write in your introduction.
We will go through some examples in a minute.

Basic Introduction

To write your introduction, follow these steps. Each one of these steps means you start a sentence that is new.

  • Rewrite the question using keywords, include the name of text(s) and s that are author(
  • Write a single sentence answer (definition)
  • List all the main points of one’s argument

Exemplory case of an Introduction

Are pigs in a position to fly? (Question)
Pigs are unable to fly. (Re-write of question)
they can’t fly because their bodies don’t allow them to. (Definition)
These are typically too heavy to float, they do not have wings or propellers, and additionally they cannot control aircraft. (Main Points)

Your body forms most of your essay.
This is the most important section of each essay you write.
Within your body, you have to argue your entire main points and explain why they answer your question.
Each main point should really be in a new paragraph.

Each main point should really be in a different paragraph. Each paragraph must be put down like this:

  • Topic Sentence: a sentence that is short you repeat one main point from your introduction.
  • Discussion: Explain why your point that is main is and present reasons why.
  • Evidence: Proof that you will get from a text, a quote, or a ‘fact’. It must prove that your particular answer is right.
  • Lead out: complete the main point so you can easily go directly to the next.

Exemplory case of a physical body Paragraph

Pigs are too heavy to float. (Topic Sentence)
Their large bodies and weight mean that they are not in a position to float, which can be one of the ways a creature can fly. To float a pig would need to be lighter than air. (discussion)
A pig weighs 200 kilograms, and because of this weight, it isn’t lighter than air. (Evidence)
As a result, a pig struggles to float and cannot fly. (Lead out)

Conclusion of Essay Writing Structure

A conclusion is a summary that is short of you’ve got written in the body paragraph.
It will ‘tie’ everything together.

As pigs are not able to float, they do have wings and cannot control aircraft, they not able to go into the atmosphere, and therefore cannot fly.

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